"If we are to achieve results never before accomplished, we must employ methods never before attempted." ~SIR FRANCIS BACON 1561-1626~

About Supported by Science

Read Right Methodology Is Supported by Science

On Constructivist Theory and Implicit Procedural Learning

Piaget J. (1950): The Psychology of Intelligence. Translated fromFrench: Percy M and Berlyne DE. London: Routledge.

Inhelder B. and Piaget J. (1964): The Early Growth of Logic in the Child. New York: Harper &

Peter E. Turkeltaub, Jill Weisberg, D. Lynn Flowers, Debi Basu, and Guinevere F. Eden,

The Neurobiological Basis of Reading: A Special Case of Skill Acquisition, University Medical Center, Georgetown University, 4000 Reservoir Road, Building D. Suite 150, Washington District of Columbia 20057, USA.

“Procedural learning occurs implicitly, and can be contrasted with declarative learning, which requires conscious awareness of that which is being learned.”

On Children Who Teach Themselves to Read through Implicit Processes before They Start Formal Schooling

Durkin D. (1966): Children Who Read Early. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.

On Brain Plasticity

Allman WF (1989): Apprentices of Wonder: Inside the Neural Network Revolution. New York: Bantam Books

Johnson G (1992): In the Palaces of Memory. New York: Vintage Books

Ratey JJ (2001): A User’s Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain. New York: Pantheon Books

Schwartz JM and Begley S: (2002). The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: Regan Books/Harper Collins

LeDoux J (2002): Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. New York: Penguin

On Examining Neural Activation Patterns Associated with Word Identification and with Reading Connected Text

Carpenter PA, Just MA, Keller TA, Eddy WF, Thulborn KR (1999): Time course of fMRI-activation in language and spacial networks during sentence comprehension. Neuroimage 10:216-224.

Keller TA, Carpenter P.A, and Just MA (2001): The Neural Bases of Sentence Comprehension: A fMRI Examination of Syntactic and Lexical Processing. Cerebral Cortex 11 (3): 223-37.

Price CJ, Winterburn D, Giraud AL, Moore CJ, Noppeney U (2003): Cortical Localization of the Visual and Auditory Word Form Areas: A Reconsideration of the Evidence. Brain and Language 86 (2): 272-86.

Price CJ and Devlin JT (2003): The Myth of the Visual Word Form Area. NeuroImage 19, Comments and Controversies, (473-81).

Vandenberghe R, Nobre AC, Price CJ (2002). The Response of Left Temporal Cortex to Sentences. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14: 550-60.

Constable RT, Pugh KR, Berroya E, Mencl WE, Westerveld M, Ni W, Shankweiler D (2004): Sentence complexity and input modality effects in sentence comprehension: an fMRI study. Neuroimage 22 (1): 11-21.

Lee D and Newman SD (2009): The Effect of Presentation Paradigm on Syntactic Processing: An Event-Related fMRI Study. Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

On Anticipatory Sets

Lavigne F, Lavigne P (2000): “Anticipatory Semantic Processes,” International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, Volume 7.

Anticipatory Set, definition:
A collection of elements assembled to function as a unit to enable a prediction, or anticipation to occur. In the case of reading, the prediction is relative to the author’s intended message.

On Back-Propagation

Rumelhart, D. E., Hinton, G. E. & Williams, R. J. in Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition. Vol. 1: Foundations (eds Rumelhart, D. E. & McClelland, J. L.) 318-362 (MIT, Cambridge, 1986).

Back-Propagation, definition:
An error is calculated at the output and distributed back through the network layers. In other words, the brain adjusts the network based on the output of errors.

Trevor’s annual test scores doubled and were in a passing range this year. (6.5 grades of reading ability gained in 113 hours)

— Heather, Trevor's Mom —